What is the latest science on the performance-enhancing qualities of nitrate-rich vegetables?

 

References:

  1. A M Jones. Influence of dietary nitrate on the physiological determinants of exercise performance: a critical review. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Sep;39(9):1019-28.
  2. W T Clements, S R Lee, R J Bloomer. Nitrate ingestion: a review of the health and physical performance effects. Nutrients. 2014 Nov 18;6(11):5224-64.
  3. F Wang, S Dai, M Wang, H Morrison. Erectile dysfunction and fruit/vegetable consumption among diabetic Canadian men. Urology. 2013 Dec;82(6):1330-5.
  4. F J Larsen, T A Schiffer, S Borniquel, K Sahlin, B Ekblom, J O Lundberg, E Weitzberg. Dietary inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans. Cell Metab. 2011 Feb 2;13(2):149-59.
  5. M Murphy, K Eliot, R M Heuertz, E Weiss. Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Apr;112(4):548-52.
  6. D A Hobbs, M G Goulding, A Nguyen, T Malaver, C F Walker, T W George, L Methven, J A Lovegrove. Acute ingestion of beetroot bread increases endothelium-independent vasodilation and lowers diastolic blood pressure in healthy men: a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr. 2013 Sep;143(9):1399-405.
  7. D A Hobbs, N Kaffa, T W George, L Methven, J A Lovegrove. Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects. Br J Nutr. 2012 Dec 14;108(11):2066-74.
  8. V Bond Jr, B H Curry, R G Adams, R M Millis, G E Haddad. Cardiorespiratory function associated with dietary nitrate supplementation. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Feb; 39(2): 168–172.
  9. H K Engan, A M Jones, F Ehrenberg, E Schagatay. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves dry static apnea performance. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012 Jul 1;182(2-3):53-9.